Friday, July 30, 2010

Writing a resume in English

Writing a resume in English
Significant  Points When Writing a resume in English
The purpose of an English CV is to sell yourself :
An English CV is seen as an an opportunity to sell yourself and should emphasis your skills, experiences and achievements. You should include successes and wherever possible include facts and figures to support your claims. Do NOT include information that is negative.
Spelling and Grammar Check :
Correct spelling and grammar are of absolute importance in an English CV. Employers will NOT tolerate any mistakes. It is very important that a native English speaker checks your CV before you send it to an English-speaking employer.
Do not include a photo:
Most English employers do NOT like to see a photo on the CV and, in fact, including one could work against you. Only include a photo if it has been specifically requested for a particular job application.
English Language skills:
This is a very important aspect of your CV and your professional career. You must explain your knowledge knowledge of the English language under the ‘Skills’ heading. Describe your level of knowledge as one of the following
Bilingual  -- You can speak English as well as your mother tongue
Fluent      -- You have a complete working knowledge of the English language, both written and speaking.
Working knowledge--You have a good practical knowledge of  English for professional purposes.
Conversational--You can converse adequately in English with good comprehension.
Writing a resume in English
English CV Format :
Your name, address, telephone number and email address should appear at the top of your English CV. Always  use a capital letter at the beginning of a name including the name of a street,town or country. Do NOT put CV or Curriculum Vitae as a heading.
Your CV should be produced on a word processor, not hand written, and be available softcopy as a Word or PDF file. If you are printing your CV you should use good quality paper.
An employer will scan your CV in thirty seconds looking for keywords that are relevant to the vacancy he is trying to fill. Keep your CV short and concise so that your positive attributes stand out. Your CV should be no more than two pages long.
Do NOT use initials for company names or qualifications, as these could be meaningless to an English employer. Always write the words in full.
Headings :1. Profile: This is an opportunity to summarise the skills and experience you have described elsewhere in your CV. It is the first part of the CV that the employer will read. It should be only one or two paragraphs long otherwise the reader may not go on to read the rest of your CV. You should also include your career aspirations.
2. Achievements: list any special achievements from your career history or education that may make you stand out from other candidates . List no more than six.
3. Career History: This is a very important part of your CV. The most common CV format is written in reverse-chronological order. Start with your most recent employment and work backwards. List the dates between which you worked for each employer; the name of the employer, your position and the location at which you worked. Write a short description of the company and then describe your responsibilities including facts and figures as much as possible.
4. Skills: In an English CV it is necessary to list particular technical, professional or other skills separate from your career history. An English employer will not necessarily be familiar with non-English professional qualifications therefore you must explain each one.
5. Education: You must enter your highest qualification first, then where achieved, and then dates. Make sure you explain any non-English qualifications or try and put the English equivalent, e.g. Baccalaureate, French equivalent to the Higher Leaving Certificate and A levels. Do not include grades unless they are particularly impressive.
6. Personal details: It is not necessary to include all of your personal details on an English CV as your skills and experience are of paramount importance. However, you need to include your nationality and it is normal to include your Date of Birth such as: 11th November 1967. Do not put your age.
7. Interests. You do not have to include your interest on an English CV but they will help to give the employer a rounded picture of you as an individual.
Signature: It is not necessary to personally sign your English CV.

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Active & Passive Verb Forms

Active / Passive Verb Forms
Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "Active forms" and "Passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.
Active Form
In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.
[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]
  Teacher           teaches          the students
(subject doing action)        (verb)                    (object receiving action)   

Passive Form
In passive sentences,the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.
[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]
The Student          are taught         by the Professor.
 (subject receiving action)        ( passive verb)                    (doing action)   

Active and passive verb
Active / Passive Overview
Simple Present          Once a week, Raina cleans the house.(Active)
Simple Present          Once a week, the house is cleaned by Raina.(Passive)
Present Continuous   Right now, Sarah is writing the letter. (Active)
Present Continuous   Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.(Passive)
Simple Past                Sam repaired the car (Active)
Simple Past                The car was repaired by Sam.(Passive)
 Present Perfect         Many tourists have visited that castle.(Active)  
Present Perfect         That castle has been visited by many tourists. .(Passive) 
Present Perfect Continuous    Recently, John has been doing the work(Active)  
Present Perfect Continuous    Recently, the work has been being done by John.(Passive)

Verb Tense Class

Verb Tense Class
Verb tenses are tools that English speakers use to express time in their language. You may find that many English tenses do not have direct translations in your language. That is not a problem. By studying this verb tense class, you will learn to think like a native English speaker. If you prefer to use the verb tense pages as a reference only and do not want to complete the tutorial
Types of Verbs
Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups: Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed Verbs.
Group I Normal Verbs
Most verbs are "Normal Verbs." These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.
Normal Verbs
To run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc.
•I eat dinner every day.
•I am eating dinner now. 
Verb Tense Class

Group II Non-Continuous Verbs
The second group, called "Non-Continuous Verbs," is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in continuous tenses. They include:
Abstract Verbs
To be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist.
Possession Verbs
To possess, to own, to belong.
Emotion Verb
To like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind...
•    He is needing help now. Not Correct
•    He needs help now. Correct
•    He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct
•    He wants a drink now. Correct 
Group III Mixed Verbs
The third group, called "Mixed Verbs," is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is unique verb. Some meanings behave like "Non-Continuous Verbs," while other meanings behave like "Normal Verbs."
Mixed Verbs 
To appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh..

Saturday, July 24, 2010

Choose a Good Dictionary about Vocabulary

Expanding your vocabulary
To develop one’s vocabulary is not as difficult as you first believe. A number of straightforward activities can facilitate familiarisation and understanding. Many strategies for learning vocabulary are also present in software products, such as those developed by Ultimate Vocabulary.
Expanding your vocabulary is no easy task. But you can make headway if you learn how to use a dictionary properly.
Let's say you have just read or heard a word unfamiliar to you. How do you use a dictionary to help you remember the new word?
Choose a Good Dictionary
In expanding your vocabulary, you first need a good dictionary. For Australian English, try the Macquarie Dictionary. For British English, try the Oxford English Dictionary. For US English, try Websters. Keep the dictionary close by, consult it carefully and often.
How NOT to Use the Dictionary
Most of us dictionaries unproductively. Assume you look up your dictionary for the meaning of a word. Of the various definitions the dictionary gives, you disregard all of them except the definition that makes sense of the word in the context in which you heard it or saw it, or which fits your preconception of the word's meaning. As the authors of The Century Vocabulary Builder say, "At best you have tided over a transitory need, or have verified a surmise." You have not really learned the word; you have not "so fixed it in memory that henceforth, night or day, you can take it up like a familiar tool. "Fixing a word in memory" involves effort and application. You must use a dictionary intelligently.
Choose Good Dictionary about Vocabulary

The Secret to Using a Dictionary
A big secret to using a dictionary to expand your vocabulary is finding the original meaning of the word. If the word comes from Old English or from a foreign language, look at the word's origin. You will find this information (called etymology) inside brackets or parentheses following the word or at the end of the list of definitions. For example, you may find the Latin, Greek, French, German, Italian, or other word that your word came from.
Having found your word's original meaning, get this original meaning into your head; the original meaning is one of the really significant things about the word and really helps in expanding your vocabulary.
Next,find the modern mea find the modern meaning of the word. Look through the modern definitions. Your word might have too many definitions, or the differences between the meanings might be too subtle, for you to keep all the meanings clearly in mind. But do not worry about this. Consider those different meanings, but focus mainly on the drift or the central meaning of the word.
You now know the original meaning of the word and its central meaning today. The two meanings might be the same or they might be completely different. But you should be able to see some sort of connection between the two meanings. When you have done this, you have mastered the word. From the two meanings you can work out the other meanings, wherever and whenever you find them, since the other meanings are just outgrowths and applications of the original meaning and the modern meaning. By using a dictionary in this way, you will expand your vocabulary.
Modern vocabulary-expanding tools
Similar ideas underlie modern vocabulary-expanding tools. For example, Ultimate Vocabulary hooks into online etymology databases, making it easy for you to see the original meaning and origin of a word. Ultimate Vocabulary also has a comprehensive dictionary that uses Princeton University's "WordNet" database for the software's backend.
Are you having difficulty learning English? Are you saying to yourself "If only I could learn English better, I could do so much more."? If you are answering yes to these questions, I'm sure you're wondering how you can do that. In this article, I would like to explain some problems many English learners face, and ways to improve your English that are simple and can be fun at the same time

Friday, July 16, 2010

How to Conversation Passengers in English

Checking In Passengers
Check-in Assistant
•    Can I see your ticket, please?
•    Do you have your passport with you?
•    I'm afraid your passport has expired.
•    Do you have a second piece of identification?
•    I'll need to see your child's birth certificate.
•    How many bags are you checking?
•    Will you be bringing a carry-on bag?
•    I'm afraid that bag exceeds the size restrictions.
•    Did you pack your bags yourself?
•    Would you like an aisle or a window seat?
•    Would you like a wheelchair?
•    You'll board at Gate 7.
•    Please be at the gate thirty minutes before your scheduled flight.
•    Did you need any tags for your luggage?
•    Your flight is expected to take off on time.
•    Your flight has been delayed by one hour.
•    Flight 87B to Toronto has been canceled.
•    I'm afraid you're too late to check-in.
•    Your flight is overbooked. Would you be interested in giving up your seat?
•    Enjoy your flight.
•    I'm not sure which of these papers is my ticket.
•    Is it possible to get an aisle seat?
•    I requested a vegetarian meal. Can you check to confirm?
•    Can I take my child through security?
•    Is the flight on time?
•    Will they be serving a meal today?
•    Will they be showing an inflight movie?
•    Where can I get a luggage cart?
•    Can I use my Laptop on board?
How to Conversation Passengers in English

Sample Conversation
Check-in Assistant:    Hello. Are you flying to St. Martin today?
Passenger:    Yes, I have my ticket here.
Check-in Assistant:    Great. I'll need to see your passport as well.
Passenger:    I have an e-ticket. this the part you need?
Check-in Assistant:    Actually I just need your name and I can find you on the computer.
Passenger:    Oh OK. It's Bates. Frank Bates.
Check-in Assistant:    Great. Here we are. Oh, you're traveling with an infant today.
Passenger:    Yes, my daughter Mia. She's 14 months.
Check-in Assistant:    Okay. I'll need to see your daughter's birth certificate to prove that she is under two years of age.
Passenger:    Here you are. Say, would we be able to get an aisle seat? I may have to walk her around if she gets fussy.
Check-in Assistant:    Sure. I'll put you near the washroom too.
Passenger:    Thanks. Can I take my stroller to the gate?
Check-in Assistant:    Yes, we'll check it in the over-sized luggage after you board. Are you just checking these two bags today?
Passenger:    Yes, I'll take my knapsack as my carry-on.
Check-in Assistant:    Did you pack these bags yourself?
Passenger:    Yes.
Check-in Assistant:    Okay. Here is your boarding pass. Be at the gate one hour prior to boarding time. You will be able to preboard because you are traveling with an infant. Our flight crew will have some special instructions for take-off and landing

How to Conversate a Reservation in English

Taking a Reservation
 Front Desk Receptionist
•    Enterprise Hotels, Lise speaking. How can I help you?
•    What date are you looking for?
•    How long will you be staying?
•    How many adults will be in the room?
•    I'm afraid we are booked that weekend.
•    There are only a few vacancies left.
•    We advise that you book in advance during peak season.
•    Will two double beds be enough?
•    Do you want a smoking or non-smoking room?
•    The dining room is open from 4 pm until 10 pm.
•    We have an indoor swimming pool and sauna.
•    We serve a continental breakfast.
•    Cable television is included, but the movie channel is extra.
•    Take Exit 8 off the highway and you'll see us a few kilometers up on the left hand side.
•    The rate I can give you is 99.54 with tax.
•    We require a credit card number for a deposit.
•    I'd like to make a reservation for next week.
•    Is it necessary to book ahead?
•    Do you charge extra for two beds?
•    How much is it for a cot?
•    Do you offer free breakfast?
•    Is there a restaurant in the hotel?
•    Do the rooms have refrigerators?
•    Do you do group bookings?
•    Is there an outdoor pool?
•    Do you have any cheaper rooms?
•   When is it considered off- season?
How to Conversation Reservation in English

Sample Conversation
Receptionist:    Thanks for calling Quality Inn. Morine speaking.
Caller:    Hello. I'm interested in booking a room for the September long weekend.
Receptionist:    I'm afraid we're totally booked for that weekend. There's a convention in town and we're the closest hotel to the convention centre.
Caller:    Oh, I didn't realize. Well what about the weekend after that?
Receptionist:    So... Friday the seventeenth?
Caller:    Yes. Friday and Saturday.
Receptionist:    It looks like we have a few vacancies left. We recommend that you make a reservation, though. It's still considered peak season then.
Caller:    Okay. Do you have any rooms with two double beds? We're a family of four.
Receptionist:    Yes, all of our rooms have two double beds. The rate for that weekend is $129 dollars a night.
Caller:    That's reasonable. And do you have cots? One of my daughters might be bringing a friend.
Receptionist:    We do, but we also charge an extra ten dollars per person for any family with over four people. The cot is free.
Caller:    Okay, but I'm not positive if she is coming. Can we pay when we arrive?
Receptionist:    Yes, but we do require a fifty dollar credit card deposit to hold the room. You can cancel up to five days in advance and we will refund your deposit.
Caller:    Great, I'll call you right back. I have to find my husband's credit card.
Receptionist:    Okay. Oh, and just to let you know...our outdoor pool will be closed, but our indoor pool is open.

How to Learn English for Babies

English for Babies and Parents
Note to parents : Learn English with your baby. All underlined words are explained in the English Checker. Click the green arrow twice for audio
Welcome to these English for Babies and Parents pages, where you and your baby can practise English together. Here you will find simple stories, rhymes, games and recommended materials to help you introduce English to your baby or toddler. The audio section will help you learn the songs and rhymes so that you can teach them to your baby.
Native English parents may also use these pages with their young children. Browse through the lessons to find songs, rhymes, and activities to use throughout the day as your child learns her native language.
How to learn English for Babies

Frequently Asked Questions
Is my baby too young to learn English?
It is never too early to introduce English to your baby. Babies love sounds, rhymes, and stories. Learning a language comes naturally to them. Most experts agree that babyhood is the best time to learn a second language. From birth to about age two or three, your baby's brain acts like a sponge. This is also the best time for a parent to teach a language.Parents and other adults naturally speak more slowly and clearly to babies than older children. They also tend to repeat words and phrases often. Repetition is very important for language learning.
How will my baby learn English?
Babies learn language in many ways. Most importantly, they learn through listening. The more words they hear, the more words they learn. They also learn from watching and imitating. While you play together, your baby will learn to associate words with objects. Open English  will help you introduce your baby to English through songs, rhymes, and playtime.
How long should we practise?
Make English part of your daily routine. Sing, read, and play with your baby in English whenever you think of it. Recite a rhyme on the diaper table, sing a song in the bath, and read a bedtime story. Think of teaching English as part of your playtime not as a lesson. babies tell us when they are tired, bored or hungry. Watch for cues. When your baby rubs her eyes, cries, or crawls away, she is probably ready for a new activity. It is important not to overstimulate a baby.
Will my baby get confused about her first language?
Many  parents fear they will confuse their babies by introducing two languages. Research shows that babies can learn more than one language at a time. In bilingual homes, many parents use a method where one parent speaks one language and other speaks and another parent speaks another language. Sometimes they choose a language that will be the "native" language, though children will make their own decisions, based on the one they hear more often. You should do whatever feels most natural to you. Interacting with your baby early on in both languages is the key. Never let a television take the place of a human.
Why isn't my baby talking?
Experts believe that babies understand  language about 6 months before they can express their understanding. Your baby is mainly listening to sounds and words. When you talk, read, and sing to your baby, he will listen and smile. One day your baby will surprise you. She will sing along with you or point to an item and say the proper word. Then you will know that she was listening! Never compare your baby with other babies. Children learn at their own pace. It is unfair to have learning expectations at this age. Keep in mind that babies are learning many things at once. When your baby starts to walk he may stop talking for a while. This doesn't mean you should stop singing and reading to him! Visit here for more Beginner's tips.
Will my baby learn my English mistakes?
Don't worry if your English isn't strong. You are still the best teacher! Babies love the sounds of their parents' voices. These pages are designed for beginners. You and your baby can learn together.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Improve Your Communication with Vocabulary

Improve Your Communication with Vocabulary
Sometimes,admitting that we need help to increase our vocabulary can be uncomfortable. We might present a great front to our friends and coworkers in terms of verbal vocabulary, but in relation to non-verbal vocabulary we may be in need of help. Alternatively, we might be entering college or university and require assistance with our everyday vocabulary in order to develop academic word knowledge. Whatever the reason, vocabulary software can help us to get the most out of our efforts.
Vocabulary software is an E-learning tool offers a more efficient method of effective vocabulary learning.
Accommodation of student with different learning styles.E-learning also offers self-paced learning and access to materials is available when students are not in the traditional classroom setting.
E-learning promotes “reflective” learning, which involves actively rather than passively gaining knowledge – a strategy that is known to promote learning and retention. It also allows students to centre attention on what they need to learn.
E-learning can offer a cheaper method of learning and one that is more time efficient. It can avoid the need for expensive materials as it is presented in electronic form.
Vocabulary software incorporates known principles of learning (via research findings and experience) into one program. This translates into a more efficient method of instruction.
When developing vocabulary for non-native English speakers, the use of computers is extremely valuable. There are vocabulary software products on the market, such as Ultimate Vocabulary’s ESL (English as a second language) product, that are specifically designed to improve English vocabulary. It is also well-known that learning word meanings is enhanced when in context. Computers can offer this context, as well as offering an active learning experience. This gives different types of learners, who have different styles of learning, a more effective way of developing vocabulary
Using vocabulary software can be an efficient way of learning word meanings. There are many benefits of E-learning that conventional methods of instruction cannot offer. Such software utilises proven instructional techniques that are known to increase a learner's vocabulary. If you are considering increasing your vocabulary for any reason, e-learning methods are second to none.
Improve Your Communication with Vocabulary

Increase Your Vocabulary: Practical Steps
The need to improve your vocabulary might seem intimidating at first. It might appear to be a want rather than an achievable goal. There are, however, a number of simple and practical steps you can do to increase your vocabulary.
•  Learn new words that have been recently added to the dictionary.
• Create words that you believe will be added to the dictionary. Find them in a text document (such as newspaper or spoken) and examine how they have been used.
• For words that are overused, substitute them with different words.
• Learn commonly used prefixes, suffixes, and roots.
• Connect new words to your existing knowledge and experiences.
• Define the word, use it in a sentence, and draw it.
•    Because 70% of the most commonly used words have numerous meanings, it is necessary to apply context when trying to understand meanings.
•    Break down syllables in words to help understand meaning.
•    Keep a record of new words and their definitions. Also use them in a sentence.
•    Do not try and learn too many words at the same time. It will not work.
Other methods you can employ to increase your vocabulary can include: keywords (ie, associate new words with visual representation); motor imaging (ie, linking new words with signs, such as gestures, acting or pantomimes); self-selection (ie, searching and learning about new words uncovered in reading or the media)

Improve Your Writing and Comprehension

Improve Your Writing and Comprehension
Spelling can be one of those things in life that can be enough of an interference to make life difficult. For others, it can be straight out demoralising. Perhaps you are currently dealing with your own spelling and vocabulary difficulties or are trying to help your child with spelling development. Whatever the reason, there are some basic rules of spelling that can be followed in order to make the process easier.
Some Basic Guidelines of Spelling
  1. The i before e, except after c rule, such as in "achieve" or "friend". Just remember, though, there are exceptions to most rules. The i before e rule does not work in the case of those words that have an a sound to them, such as "eight" or "freight", or with cie such as in "deficient". 
  2. Often, adding a prefix to a word does not change how the main word is spelt, such as "dissatisfied" or "misinformed".
  3. Dropping the y. For words that end in y, and where a consonant (ie all the letters in the alphabet except a, e, i, o, u) is before it, drop the y when adding an ending, such as "worry" to "worried". This does not apply to those endings that start with i, such as "cry" to "crying" nor to words where there is a vowel (ie, a, e, i, o, u) before the y, such as "obeyed". 
 4. Drop the final e. Drop the e  when the word ends with a vowel, such as "advance" to "advancing"; when there is a vowel before the silent e, such as "argue" to "argument". The exception is if the ending begins with a consonant; here, keep the e, such as "advance" to "advancement" (CSU, 2005).
Improve your Writing and Comprehension

Learning from Incorrectly Spelt Words
Apart from following rules of spelling, another method of improving your or your child’s spelling is to analyse words that are consistently spelt incorrectly. It will potentially signal areas in which you need help. Cabrillo College (2005) suggests that whenever you incorrectly spell a word, you should:
•    1. Write the word the way you have incorrectly spelt it;
•    2. Write the correct spelling;
•    3. Write down why you incorrectly spelt it;
•    4. Define the word in your own words;
•    5. Use the word in a sentence.
Easier and More Enjoyable Way: Spelling and Vocabulary Software
Another method of improving your or your child’s spelling skills is to use computer-assisted learning. For example, Ultimate Vocabulary’s Ultimate Spelling product is software that follows the rules of spelling, can accelerate learning, and makes education fun. It offers 100 spelling lists and has a 142,647-word dictionary and thesaurus. There are also 20,127 high-quality audio pronunciations.
Spelling skills are an important confidence booster at school or in the workplace. There are basic rules of spelling that learners can follow. Computer-assisted learning tools can also be used in order to learn the fundamental rules of spelling and to offer a fun learning experience.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

Confidence in English without Speaking

Confidence in English without Speaking

Before you try to speak English, you must "think" in English. I will show you an exercise that will both build your confidence and increase your ability to begin conversations in English. This exercise requires no speaking
1.Step 1
Before you speak in English, you must "Think" in English. These steps will help you grow in confidence and increase your ability to later begin conversations in English.
In your day to day life you will see many people. Imagine that they only speak English.
2.    Step 2
When you see someone,think to yourself that you are going to start a conversation with them. Imagine how you are going to start your conversation. Imagine them understanding you and continuing the conversation
3.    Step 3
Feel yourself becoming more confident as you imagine yourself speaking. Also, feel your nervousness and see yourself speaking anyway.
Do this several times a day without actually talking to anyone.
Your confidence will grow and in a real situation you will be much better prepared to speak.
How to improve your English:
There are many ways to improve your level of English:
Read as many English books, newspapers and magazines as you can find.
We also recommend the English version of the monthly magazine READERS DIGEST. It has short stories and articles. We are offering copies in our competition on the visitor page.
Try some of the radio stations we recommend on the Worldwide Radio schedules page BBC Overseas Service. They have a very good website designed to help English learners and teachers.
Talk to friends who are also learning English. Make a rule that perhaps for an hour, or when you go out together, you will only speak English to each other! Find native English-speaking people who will give you conversation practice.
See our section of advice on how to choose a good language school.
Maybe we will see you in Britain one day? Look at our Visiting Britain pages. 
Confidence in English with out Speaking

English is an easy language to start learning because:
•    It has no genders. Apart from people, all objects are 'neuter', not 'masculine' or 'feminine'. So you say 'it' for such things, and do not need to learn any genders.
•   It usually has easy verb endings. Apart from a few 'irregular' verbs, verb endings are easy, and hardly change.
•    Adjectives remain the same for all words - there are no different endings to learn.
•    The singular and plural pronoun 'you' is the same. There is no need to decide whether to use a polite form, or an intimate form, when speaking to someone as in French or German. (English used to have the singular form 'thou', which was often used in the intimate way like 'tu' or 'du'. In fact, in dialects in parts of England, this is still sometimes used. And in the Republic of Ireland, they have a very sensible plural form of 'you', when speaking to several people: 'yous'.)
The difficult parts of English are:
•    The spelling of a word may not show what the pronunciation (way of saying) the word is.
This is because English words came from many different sources. It is not a 'pure' language.
•    Because English came from two main sources - old French, and old Anglo-Saxon, there is a very large vocabulary of words. Words with similar meanings may have come from both sources. For example, START (from Anglo-Saxon) and COMMENCE (from old French). The meaning is similar, but not precisely the same.
•  Native English speakers use a lot of idioms, that is - words used in a way which is not their obvious meaning. An English speaker may say,

Problems in Learning English

Are you having difficulty learning English? Are you saying to yourself "If only I could learn English better, I could do so much more."? If you are answering yes to these questions, I'm sure you're wondering how you can do that. In this article, I would like to explain some problems many English learners face, and ways to improve your English that are simple and can be fun at the same time.
Problems in Learning English
- Poor English Vocabulary
Vocabulary is important when learning a language. Any language, of course including English, has thousands and thousands of words. In many cases, even those native speakers of the language do not know all the words of that language. there are just too many to learn. In fact, according to many sources I have come across, there are only 800 words that you must know to converse in English. That list is too long to display here, but a good start is to read through that list and see how many words you know. You may surprise yourself in the amount of words you are familiar with. I have posted the list on World English club, and you can go over it there. Another problem people face in learning English vocabulary is that they learn new words, but they tend to forget what they have learned quite soon after the just learned them. So what can you do?
- How to Improve your English Vocabulary
There are games to play and methods to learn to improve your English vocabulary. The best simple method I want to suggest is this; just make a list. Now there is more to there is more to it an just making a list, so keep reading. Once a week, make a list of twenty five words using the World English Club Vocab lists, or choose words from other popular websites. As you are compiling (or making) your list, make sure to write down the definitions if you are unsure of them at the time. Do your best to study and learn these new words. Now break the list down into five words a day. On your first day, study your first five words. On your second day, study your next five words. Now here's the trick; after your second day of your five vocab words, try to write down yesterday's words. On your third day, study day three's  words, and then try to remember and write down day two's vocab words. Are you seeing a pattern yet? I hope so. Do this for five days, and on your sixth day of vocabulary learning, try to write all your vocab words for the last week. Take your time, and do your best. When you are done,review those words and see what you remember. If you use the method above, I guarantee you will improve your English vocabulary and not forget the words you have learned.

Problems in Learning English

- Poor English Speaking Skills
One of the biggest complaints I hear about when one is learning a new language, is their inability to communicate successfully. Whether it is an issue with reducing their accent, or not knowing the vocabulary or grammar to create a decent conversation, many people struggle with poor speaking skills. People assume that learning grammar in a classroom or studying vocabulary words will help them speak a English as a language. But those factors only gain you knowledge of the English language and cannot translate into real conversational English skills. Are you having problems with English speaking skills? Here are ways to improve your English speaking skills.
- How to improve your English Speaking Skills
Have you tried to watch a movie in English? I'm sure you have. It is one of the easiest things to do while studying and learning English. But what is it about watching movies that is a good idea? I'll tell you; it's hearing the words spoken out load. So there is one thing that I'm sure you haven't thought of to mirror this learning effect, but it will make a bigger and better improvement on learning English speaking skills. Read a book. Well, it doesn't have to be a book, but it needs to be in English. Now here's the trick; As you are reading this book, read it OUT LOUD. Yes, it is a simple as that. Reading out loud will let you hear your English and at the same time, help you gain more confidence in speaking English. It does not have to be for a very long time. But you should read out loud for at least five minutes a day. Do not give up on this. I think this is an important method to practice and not enough people practice in this manner. Make sure you are pronouncing your words, and if you have to read slowly, that's OK as well. The point is that you are speaking out loud and practicing speaking English. Since many English learner do not have the opportunity to interact with native English speakers, this is one best methods to help improve your English speaking skills. Which brings me to my final learning English problem.
- Not enough interaction with English speakers
Not being able to have interaction with native English speakers can be a great hindrance on one who is learning English. But there are many things you can do to help improve your interaction with native English speakers, or at least to simulate this experience. Which, let's face it, is probably the most important part of learning a new language. Interaction. So here are some things you can do.
- As you all are aware, watching movies is a good idea. You can learn slang words and, if you are interested in learning to speak like an American, there are a lot of colloquialisms and Americanisms (as I like to call them) that are difficult to learn about simply by reading. to learn colloquialisms, a person must hear the words and phrases in context. So by watching movies, there can be no way in which you, as a learner, can mistake or misunderstand the meaning of the words or phrases.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

How to improve Your Vocabulary

How To Improve Your Vocabulary
There are many ways to improve your vocabulary. When working to improve your vocabulary it's important to know your goals in order to best choose the way in which you want to learn. Reading can be a great way to improve your vocabulary. However, it won't be much help on a vocabulary test next week. Here are a number of methods to help you improve, and expand, your English vocabulary.
Vocabulary Trees
Vocabulary trees help provide context. Once you've mapped out a few vocabulary trees, you'll discover yourself thinking in vocabulary groups. When yiu see a cup your mind will quickly relate such words as knife, fork, late, dishes, etc. This overview to vocabulary trees provides will help you get started. Here is an example of a vocabulary tree.
Create Vocabulary Themes
Create a list of vocabulary themes, include the vocabulary, a definition and an example sentence for each new item. Here is an example of a household appliance vocabulary theme sheet
Use Technology to Help You
Watching DVDs is a great way to help you understand native speakers of English. Using all the fancy options watching individual scenes can help make DVD use into a vocabulary learning exercise. 
Specific Vocabulary Lists
Rather than studying a long list of unrelated vocabulary, use specific vocabulary lists to help you prepare for the type of vocabulary you need for work, school or hobbies. These business vocabulary word lists are great for industry specific vocabulary items. 
How to improve your Vocabulary
Word Formation Charts
Word formation is one of the keys to success for advanced level ESL learners. Advanced level English exams such as the TOEFL, First Certificate CAE and Proficiency use word formation as one of the key testing elements. These word formation charts provide the concept noun, personal noun, adjective and verb forms of key vocabulary listed in alphabetical order.
Visual Dictionaries
A picture is worth a thousand words. It's also very helpful for learning precise vocabulary. There are a number of excellent English learner visual dictionaries for sale. Here is an online version of a visual dictionary dedicated to jobs.
Learn Collocations
Collocations refer to words that often or always go together. A good example of a collocation is to do your homework. These lists of important verb + noun collocations will help your learn some of the most important.
Use a Corpus
Corpora are huge collection of documents that can track the number of times a word is used. By using a corpora, you can find which words are often used together with target vocabulary words. Combining corpora use with vocabulary trees is a great way to learn key vocabulary for specific vocabulary target areas. You can get started by visiting the British National Corpus. 
  1. Use vocabulary learning methods to focus quickly on the vocabulary YOU need to study.
  2. Don't make random lists of new words. Try to group words in themes. This will help you memorize new words more quickly.
  3. If you have the time, and even if you don't have the time, try to add context. Writing a few example sentences using new vocabulary will help you remember the words in context.
  4. Keep a vocabulary notepad at hand whenever you are reading in English.

Monday, July 12, 2010

How To Improve Your English

How To Improve Your English
Learning English (or any language for that matter) is a process. You are continually improving your English and the following "How to" describes a strategy to make sure that you continue to improve effectively.
  1. Remember that learning is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.
  2. Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why?
  3. Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a week
  4. Remember to make learning a habit! If you study each day for 10 minutes English will be constantly in your head. If you study once a week, English will not be as present in your mind. 
  5. Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and listening materials
  6. Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.
  7. Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very encouraging.
  8. Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.
  9. Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.
  10. Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem strange, but it is very effective
  11. Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off
  12. Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful. Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world understand your email is fantastic!
  13. Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips. 
Improve Your English

 Remember that English learning is a process
Be patient with yourself
Practice, practice, practice

Meeting Close Wrapping Up

Closing a Meeting
Wrapping Up
There are different reasons why a meeting comes to an end. Time may run out, or all of the items in the agenda may be checked off. Some meetings will end earlier than expected and others will others will run late. The odd time, a meeting may be cut short due to an unexpected problem or circumstance. Here are a variety of ways to adjourn a meeting:
•    It looks like we've run out of time, so I guess we'll finish here.
•    I think we've covered everything on the list.
•    I guess that will be all for today. 
•    Well, look at that...we've finished ahead of schedule for once.
•    If no one has anything else to add, then I think we'll wrap this up.
•    I'm afraid we're going to have to cut this meeting short. I've just been informed of a problem that needs my immediate attention.
There is almost always one last thing to say, even after the closing remarks. A chairperson might close the meeting and then make a last-minute reminder. Instructions for tidying up the room may also be mentioned.
•   Oh, before you leave, please make sure to sign the attendance sheet.
•    I almost forgot to mention that we're planning a staff banquet next month.
•    Don't forget to put your ballot in the box on your way out.
•    If I didn't already say this, please remember to introduce yourself to the new trainees.
•    Could I have your attention again? I neglected to mention that anyone who wants to take home some of   this leftover food is welcome to.
•   If you could all return your chair to Room 7 that would be appreciated.
•   Please take all of your papers with you and throw out any garbage on your way out. 

Meeting Close Wrapping Up

Thank You and Congratulations
The end of the meeting end of the marketing is also the time to thank anyone who has not been thanked at the beginning of the meeting, or anyone who deserves a second thank you. Congratulations or Good-luck can also be offered here to someone who has experienced something new, such as receiving a promotion, getting married, or having a baby.
•    Before I let you go let's all give a big thank you (everyone claps) to Thomas for baking these delicious cookies.
•    Again,  I want to thank you for talking time out of your busy schedules to be here today.
•    Most of you probably already know this, but Nolan's wife just gave birth to a baby boy.
•    As you leave today, don't forget to wish Stella luck on the weekend.The next time you see her she will be happily married. 
Follow Up
In the closing remarks, the chairperson, or participants may want to discuss the date and time for the next meeting, when the minutes will be available, or when a decision should be made by. This is also the time to give contact information, such as how to send a question by e-mail or who to call regarding a certain issue.
•    We'll meet again on the first of next month.
•    Next time we meet I'll be sure to have those contacts for you.
•    If anyone has any questions about anything we discussed today, feel free to send me an e-mail.
•    The minutes from today's meeting will be posted as of tomorrow afternoon.
•    I'll send out a group e-mail with the voting results.

Friday, July 9, 2010

Business Meetings in English

Meetings in English
Whether you are holding a meeting or attending a meeting, it is imporant that you understand key English phrases and expressions related to meetings. A successful meeting has no surprises. With proper preparation and careful organization, a meeting can run smoothly. The most typical complaint about meetings is that they run too long. Meetings that run longer than necessary can be very costly to a company or business. As the famous business expression says: Time is money. Setting goals and time limits, keeping to the agenda, and knowing how to refocus, are key components of an effective meeting. This may sound simple in your own native language, but it is a little trickier when  you or the participants do not speak fluent English. These pages will help you hold or attend a meeting with success. Review the vocabulary, read through the lessons, and then check your understanding.
Calling a Meeting
There are a number of ways that you may call or be called to a meeting. Some meetings are announced by e-mail, and others are posted on bulletin boards. If a meeting is announced at the end of another  metting, it is important to issue a reminder. A reminder can also come in the form of an e-mail or notice. Verbal announcements or reminders should always be backed up by document ones. The date, location, time, length,and purpose of the meeting should be included. It is also important to indicate exactly who is expected to attend, and who is not. If you are planning on allocating someone to take on a certain role, make personal contact with that person to inform them of his or her duty.
Business Meeting in English

Sample E-mail:
Subject: Meeting
Hi Everyone,
We will be having a meeting next Friday from 2:00 PM-4:00 PM in Room 3.
All supervisors are expected to attend. The purpose of the meeting is to
discuss the upcoming tourist season. As you probably have heard, this
could be our busiest season to date. There are already twenty bus tours
booked from Japan, and fifteen walking tours booked from North America.
We are also expecting Korean and Australian tours in late summer. Please
make arrangements to have other staff members cover your duties during
the meeting.
Thank you,
Opening a Meeting
Small Talk
Whether you are holding the meeting or attending the meeting it is polite to make small talk while you wait for the meeting to start. You should discuss things unrelated to the metting, such as weather, family, or weekend plans.
Sample Dialogue:
John: Hi Thomas. How are you?
Lee: Great thanks, and you?
John: Well, I'm good now that the warm weather has finally arrived.
Lee: I know what you mean. I thought winter was never going to end.
John: Have you dusted off your golf clubs yet?
Lee: Funny you should ask. I'm heading out with my brother-in-law for the first round of the year on Saturday.
Once everyone has arrived, the chairperson, or whoever is in charge of the meeting should of the meeting should formally welcome everyone to the meeting and thank the attendees for coming.
•    Well, since everyone is here, we should get started.
•    Hello, everyone. Thank you for coming today.
•    I think we'll begin now. First I'd like to welcome you all.
•    Thank you all for coming at such short notice.
•    I really appreciate you all for attending today.
•    We have a lot to cover today, so we really should begin. 
Roll Call/Apologies
If the meeting is small group,  it is probably unnecessary to take attendance out loud. The person who is taking the minutes will know everyone personally and can indicate present and who is absent. In a larger meeting, it may be necessary to send around an attendance sheet or call out names. If an important figure is absent, it may be necessary for the chairperson to apologize for his or her absence and offer a brief explanation for it.
•    It looks like everyone is here today.
•    If you notice anyone missing, please let John know so that she can make a note of it.
•    Unfortunately, Lee cannot join us today. He has been called away on business
•   Rock will be standing in to take the minutes today, as Lauri is home with the flu.

Thursday, July 8, 2010

Negotiations are coming to a close

Coming to a Close or Settlement
There are a number of signals that indicate that negotiations are coming to a close. This may not always mean that an agreement has been reached. In many cases, there are many rounds of negotiations. The preliminary round may uncover the major issues, while subsequent rounds may be needed to discuss and resolve them. Here are some signals of talks coming to a close:
•   A difference of opinion has been significantly reduced
•   One party suggests signing an agreement.
•   One or both parties indicate that a period of time to pause and reflect is necessary.
Beware of last-minute strong-arm tactics.
Even if you make the decision to treat your negotiating opponent with honesty and kindness, the other party may not extend you the same respect. Be prepared to stand your ground firmly, yet cordially, especially in the last few minutes of the negotiations. This is the time when manipulative parties may employ certain tactics in order to try to fool you into losing focus or lowering goals and standards. Remember that conflicts are generally resolved in the last few minutes. The theory behind last minute tactics is that one party may be more willing to give in out of fear that all of the concessions or progress made up to that point (perhaps hours or weeks of talks) might be lost. People also get tired or have other commitments that need that need to be met, such as making an important phone call before another business closes, or picking up children from school. Here are some last minutes tricks that negotiators often use at this time:
•    Walking out of the room
•    Offering a short-term bribe
•    Telling you to take it or leave it
•    Giving an ultimatum
•    Abrupt change in tone (used to shock the other party into submission)
•    Introducing new requests (used at to get you to concede with little thought or consideration)
•   Stating generalizations  without evidence (dropped without significant statistics/proof)
•    Adopting the Mr. Nice Guy persona (used to try to make it look like they are doing you a favour in hopes that you will lower your expectations)
Negotiation are coming to a close

Language to use in closing
•    It sounds like we 've found some common ground.
•    I'm willing to leave things there if you are.
•    Let's leave it this way for now.
•    I'm willing to work with that.
•    I think we both agree to these terms.
•    I'm satisfied with this decision.
•    I think we should get this in writing.
•    I'd like to stop and think about this for a little while.
•    You've given me a lot to think about/consider.
•    Would you be willing to sign a contract right now?
•    Let's meet again once we've had some time to think.
Formalize the agreement/negotiation
In most business negotiations it is a good idea to get something down in writing. Even if a decision has not been made, a letter of intent to continue the negotiation is often used. This is a way for each party to guarantee that talks will continue. A letter of intent often outlines the major issues that will be discussed in future negotiations. In some cases a confidentially agreement is also necessary. This is a promise from both parties to keep information private between discussions. When an agreement has been decided , a formal contract may be required. On the other hand, depending on the seriousness of the decision, and the level of trust between the two parties, a simple handshake and verbal agreement may be all that is needed. For example, an employer may offer a promotion and an employee may trust that the new salary will be reflected on the next paycheque. However, even if nothing is put formally in writing, it is wise to send an e-mail or letter that verifies the terms and puts the agreement on record, especially when a specific number is decided on.

Business Negotiations in English

Negotiations in English
 One of the most important skills anyone can hold in daily life is the ability to negotiate. In general terms, a negotiation is a resolution of conflict. We enter negotiation in order to start o continue a relationship and resolve an issue. Even before we accept our first jobs, or begin our careers, we all learn how to negotiate. For one person it begins with the negotiation of an allowance with a parent. For another it involves negotiating a television schedule with a sibling. Some people are naturally stronger negotiators, and are capable of getting their needs met more easily than others. Without the ability to negotiate, people break off relationships, quit jobs, or deliberately avoid conflict and uncomfortable situations.
In the world of business, negotiating skills are used for a variety of reasons, such as to negotiate a salary or a promotion, to secure a sale, or to form a new partnership . Here are a few examples of different types of negotiations in the business world:
•   Manager and Clerk : Negotiating a promotion
•    Employer and Potential Employee: Negotiating job benefits
•    Business Partner A and B: Making decisions about investments
•    Company A and Company B: Negotiating a merger
•    Customer and Client: Making a Sale

Art of Negotiating

Negotiating is often referred to as an "art". While some people may be naturally more skillful as negotiators, everyone can learn to negotiate. And, as they often say in business, everything is negotiable. Some techniques and skills that aid techniques people in the negotiating process include:
  • Aiming high
  • Visualizing the end results
  • Treating one's opponent with respect and honesty
  • Preparing ahead of time
  • Exhibiting confidence 
Throughout this lesson, we will review important techniques and skills to learn before negotiating. We will also examine certain tactics your opponents may use at the negotiating table. These pages are designed to prepare you for for negotiating in English in the business world, but they will also help you achieve your goals in everyday life.
Business negotiation in English

Preparing to Negotiate
Lack  of preparation in a negotiation almost always sets a person up for failure. First and foremost, each party must clearly define their own goals and objectives. Secondly, each party must anticipate the goals of the opposition. This may require doing some background research. Finally, each party must come up with various alternatives to their main objectives.
Collaborative Negotiating
In business, the goal of negotiating parties should always be for mutual gain. This type of win-win negotiation is often called collaborative negotiating. The opposite of collaborative negotiating is called competitive negotiating. The goal of competitive negotiating is for one party to win and the other to lose. Dishonest practices, such as lying, manipulation, intimidation, and bribery are often used in this type of negotiation.
Main Principles of Collaborative Negotiating:
•    Resolve previous conflicts ahead of time
•    Deal with issue, not personalities
•    Establish trust in the onset
•    Develop a common goal
•    Discuss a common enemy
•    Take opponent's views/needs into careful consideration: Not only do you want to win this negotiation, you want your opponent to win as well, so that he or she will negotiate with you again in the future.
Preparing to Negotiate a Job Offer
Negotiating  a job offer should mean more than just saying , yes. Though being offered a job is an exciting time, it is also an important time to use your negotiating skills. Here are some issue you may want to raise before you accept:
•    Salary
•    Promotion Opportunities
•    Insurance (medical, dental, accident, life)
•    Holidays
•    Vacation time
•    Retirement/pension plans
•    Stock options
•    Overtime
•    Expenses

Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Business Casual Conversation

Small Talk
What can we say in casual conversations with strangers or colleagues we meet in the lift? Small talk is a casual form of conversation that "breaks the ice" or fills an awkward silence between people.
Small Talk
In most English-speaking countries, it is normal and necessary to make "small talk" in certain situations. Small talk is a casual form of conversation that "breaks the ice" or fills an awkward silence between people. Even though you may feel shy using your second language, it is sometimes considered rude to say nothing. Just as there are certain times when small talk is appropriate, there are also certain topics that people often discuss during these moments.
Read through the Who, What, Where, When, Why? page to gain a better understanding of small talk. The hardest part about making small talk is knowing how to start conversation. Review the conversation starters and practise them with a friend. Finally, take the time to see how much you have learned about small talk by taking the Small Talk Quiz. And remember, in an English-speaking environment it is often better to make a few mistakes than to say nothing at all!
Business Casual Conversation
Small Talk: Who, What, Where, When, Why?
WHO makes small talk?
People with many different relationships use small talk. The most common type of people to use small talk are those who do not know each other at all. Though we often teach children not to talk to strangers, adults are expected to say at least a few words in certain situations (see where). It is also common for people who are only acquaintances, often called a "friend of a friend", to use small talk. Other people who have short casual conversations are office employees who may not be good friends but work in the same department. Customer service representatives, waitresses, hairdressers and receptionists often make small talk with customers. If you happen to be outside when the mailman comes to your door you might make small talk with him too.
WHAT do people make small talk about?
There are certain "safe" topics that people usually make small talk about. The weather is probably the number one thing that people who do not know each other well discuss. Sometimes even friends and family members discuss the weather when they meet or start a conversation. Another topic that is generally safe is current events. As long as you are not discussing a controversial issue, such as a recent law concerning equal rights, it is usually safe to discuss the news. Sports news is a very common topic, especially if a local team or player is in a tournament or play-off or doing extremely well or badly. 
WHERE do people make small talk?
People make small talk just about anywhere, but there are certain places where it is very common. Most often, small talk occurs in places where people are waiting for something. For example, you might chat with another person who is waiting for the bus to arrive, or to the person beside you waiting to get on an aeroplane. People also make small talk in a doctor's or dentist's waiting room, or in queues at the grocery store. At the office, people make small talk in elevators or lunchrooms and even in restrooms, especially if there is a line-up. Some social events (such as a party) require small talk among guests who do not know each other very well. For example, you might talk to someone you do not know at the punch bowl, or at the poolside. It is called "mingling" when people walk around in a social setting and talk to a variety of people.
WHEN do people make small talk?
The most common time for small talk to occur is the first time you see or meet someone on a given day. For example, if you see a co-worker in the lounge you might say hello and discuss the sports or weather. However, the next time you see each other you might just smile and say nothing. If there is very little noise, that might be an indication that is the right time to initiate a casual conversation. You should only spark up a conversation after someone smiles and acknowledges you. Do not interrupt two people in order to discuss something unimportant such as the weather. If someone is reading a book or writing a letter at the bus stop it is not appropriate to initiate a conversation either. Another good time to make small talk is during a break in a meeting or presentation when there is nothing important going on. Finally, it is important to recognize the cue when the other person wants the conversation to stop.
WHY do people make small talk?
There are a few different reasons why people use small talk. The first, and most obvious, is to break an uncomfortable silence. Another reason, however, is simply to fill time. That is why it is so common to make small talk when you are waiting for something. Some people make small talk in order to be polite. You may not feel like chatting with anyone at a party, but it is rude to just sit in corner by yourself. After someone introduces you to another person, you do not know anything about them, so in order to show a polite interest in getting to know them better, you have to start with some small talk.

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

Language what you are going to say

Simplicity and Clarity
If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must be simple and clear.
Use short words and short sentences.
Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it.
In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas.
Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active  verbs are much easier to understand They are much more powerful. Consider these two sentences, which say the same thing:
1.    Gillette  sold one million razor last year.
2.    One million razor were sold by Gillette last year.
Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? Which is more powerful? 1 is ACTIVE and 2 is PASSIVE


When you drive on the board you drive on the road, you know where you are on those roads. Each road has a name or number. Each town has a name. And each house has a number . You can look at the signposts for directions. And you can look at your atlas for the structure of the roads in detail. In other words, it is easy to navigate the roads. You cannot get lost. But when you give a presentation, how can your audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your presentation? How can they know what is coming next? They know because you tell them. Because you put up signboard for them, at the beginning and all along the route. This technique is called 'signposting' (or 'signaling').
During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your presentation will be. You might say something like this:
"I'll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I'll move on to some of the achievements we've made in Asia. After that I'll consider the opportunities we see for further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I'll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations."
Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions):
Language what you are going to say in English
As a general rule in communication, repetition is valuable. In presentations, there is a golden rule about repetition:
1.    Say what you are going to say,
2.    say it,
3.    then say what you have just said.
In other words, use the three parts of your presentation to reinforce your message. In the introduction, you tell your audience what your message is going to be. In the body, you tell your audience your real message. In the conclusion, you summarize what your message was.
We will now consider each of these parts in more detail.
The introduction is a very important - perhaps the most important - part of your presentation. This is the first impression that your audience have of you. You should concentrate on getting  should concentrate on getting your introduction right. You should use the introduction to:
1.    Welcome your audience
2.    Introduce your subject
3.    Outline the structure of your presentation
4.    Give instructions about questions
The body is the 'real' presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be 'in control'. You will be relaxed and confident.
The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of carefully spaced visuals.
Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation:
•    Do not hurry
•    Be enthusiastic
•    Give time on visuals
•    Maintain eye contact
•    Modulate your voice
•    Look friendly
•    Keep to your structure
•    Use your notes
•    Signpost throughout
•    Remain polite when dealing with difficult questions
Use the conclusion to:
1.   Sum up
2.   (Give recommendations if appropriate)
3.    Thank your audience
4.    Invite questions
Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can prepare your response in advance. You may wish to accept questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for question after your presentation. Normally, it's your decision, and you should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest in what you have to say and they deserve attention. Sometimes you can reformulate a question. Or answer the question with  another question. Or even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.

How to Deliver Presentation

'Delivery' refers to the way in which you actually deliver or perform or give your presentation. Delivery is a vital aspect of all presentations. Delivery is at least as important as content, especially in a multi-cultural context.
Most speakers are a little nervous at the beginning of a presentation. So it is normal if you are nervous. The answer is to pay special attention to the beginning of your presentation. First impressions count. This is the time when you establish a rapport with your audience. During this time, try to speak slowly and calmly. You should perhaps learn your introduction by heart. After a few moments, you will relax and gain confidence.
Audience Rapport
You need to build a warm and friendly relationship with your audience. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you are enthusiastic your audience will be enthusiastic too. And be careful to establish eye contact with each member of your audience. Each person should feel that you are speaking directly to him or her. This means that you must look at each person in turn - in as natural a way as possible. This will also give you the opportunity to detect signs of boredom, disinterest or even disagreement, allowing you to modify your presentation as appropriate.
Your objective is to communicate!
How to Deliver Presentation
Body Language
What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say. Your body is speaking to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses, your haircut, your expression - it is from these that your audience forms its first impression as you enter the room . Generally speaking, it is better to stand rather than sit when making  a presentation. Be aware of and avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures. Be aware,too,that the movement of your body is one of your methods of control. When you move to or from the whiteboard, for example, you can move fast or slowly, raising or reducing the dynamism within the audience.You can stand very still while talking or you can stroll from side to side. What effect do you think these two different approaches would have on an audience?
Voice quality
It is, of course, important that your audience be able to hear you clearly throughout your presentation. Remember that  if you turn away from your audience, for example towards the whiteboard, you need to speak a little more loudly. In general, you should try to vary your voice. Your voice will then be more interesting for your audience. You can vary your voice in at least three ways:
  1. Speed: you can speak at normal speed, you can speak faster, you can speak more slowly - and you can stop completely! You can pause. This is a very good technique for gaining your audience's attention.
  2. Tone: you can change the pitch of your voice. You can speak in a high tone. You can speak in a low tone.
  3. Volume: you can speak at normal volume, you can speak loudly and you can speak quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can again attract your audience's interest.
The important point is not to speak in the same,flat, monotonous voice throughout your presentation - this is the voice that hypnotists use to put their patients' into trance!
Visual aids
Of all the information that enters our brains, the vast majority of it enters through the eyes. 80% of what your audience learn during your presentation is learned visually (what they see) and only 20% is learned aurally (what they hear). The significance of this is obvious:
•  Visual aids are an extremely effective means of communication
•  Non-native English speakers need not worry so much about spoken English - they can rely more heavily on visual aids
It is well worth spending time in the creation good visual aids. But it is equally important not to overload your audience's brains. Keep the information on each visual aid to a minimum - and give your audience time to look at and absorb this information . Remember, your audience have never seen these visual aids before. They need time to study and to understand them. Without understanding there is no communication.
Audience Reaction
Remain calm and polite if you recieve calm and polite if you receive difficult or even hostile questions during your presentation. If you receive particularly awkward questions, you might suggest that the questioners ask their questions after your presentation.